Tengfei Lyu, Jie Shen , Jun Ma , Peng Ma, Zhiyuan Yang, Zou Dai , Chuangang Zheng, Min Li
The Crop Journal（IF=3.51，TOP），2020
Machine transplanting and the application of slow-release nitrogen (N) fertilizer (SRNF) have played vital roles in the modernization of rice production. We aimed to determine the effects of potted-seedling transplanting—a new machine-transplanting method—and SRNF on hybrid rice yields. A 2-year split-plot experiment (2016–2017) was conducted in Meishan, Sichuan province, China, using two machine-transplanting methods (potted-seedling and blanket-seedling) and three N treatments. Total green leaf area, high-effective leaf area and its rate at heading, net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves 7 days after heading, glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthase (GS) activity after heading, dry matter production, and N accumulation at heading and maturity increased under the potted-seedling method or 70% SRNF as a base + 30% urea application at the panicle initiation stage (SBUP). Stem diameter and number of small and of all vascular bundles at the neck–panicle node in potted-seedling plants increased as a result of increasing numbers of effective panicles, secondary branches, and spikelets. In potted-seedling plants, treatment with SBUP increased the number of large and total vascular bundles at the panicle–neck internode and the number of differentiated and surviving secondary branches and spikelets and decreased the number of ineffective tillers and degenerated secondary branches and spikelets. We conclude that the potted-seedling machine transplanting method and SRNF combined with urea topdressing can strengthen the source–sink relationship in rice, resulting in higher yields.